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Welcome to the Reliability Reading Room!  Please be quiet as people are trying to concentrate on the the latest reliability and maintenance information from publishers around the world.

Feel free to browse our collection of books excerpts and articles often as new titles are added whenever we find something new!

Some of the documents are in a .pdf format and require Adobe Acrobat v5.0 or later.  A free Adobe Acrobat Reader is available for download by clicking here.

Book Excerpts




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Excerpt from Effective Maintenance Management
by V. Narayan
Courtesy of Industrial Press

Failure - a systems approach

Failure is the inability of an item of equipment, a sub-system, or system to meet a set of predetermined performance standards. This means that we have
some expectations, which we can express quantitatively. For example, we can expect the discharge pressure of a centrifugal pump to be 10 bar gauge at 1000 liters per minute. In some cases, we can define our expectations within a band of acceptable performance. For example, the discharge flow of this pump should be 950-1000 liters per minute at 10 bar gauge. The performance
standard may be for the system, sub-system,
equipment, or component in question. These standards relate to what we need to achieve and our evaluation
of the item’s design capability and intrinsic reliability.

More...Read Failure, Its Nature and Characteristics (562k pdf)

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Benchmarking Fundamentals excerpted from Benchmarking Best Practices in Maintenance Management by Terry Wireman courtesy of Industrial Press

Benchmarking. Best practices. Competitive analysis. All these terms are used in business today. But are they just buzzwords, or do the words have real meaning? Are they useful tools that can be used to improve business practices today? Let’s begin with some definitions.

More...Read Chapter 2 Benchmarking Fundamentals (326k pdf)

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Paper excerpted from
Physical Asset Management Handbook, Third Edition, by John S. Mitchell. Used with permission. Published by Clarion Technical Publishers.
 info@clarion.org  www.clarion.org


by Gina A. Lewis, Manager, Reliability Engineering & Rotating Equipment Group of Eastman Chemical Company

Setting the vision is difficult but is often easier than determining the most efficient path to reach it. One visionary manager at Eastman Chemical Company set the vision to proactively manage ALL assets by providing condition based maintenance. It has taken 6 years, the formation of a new department, and the continual support of upper management to finally clarify the vision and document a corporate strategy to attain it.
The proactive management of assets requires industry established tools such as predictive technologies and information systems, but also requires the less talked about resources such as money and man-power, training programs, opportunity assessment tools and management champions. This presentation will attempt to present a series of learning’s that conclude by showing how all these tools interlock to provide a comprehensive Reliability Strategy for Asset Management.

More...Read the full story here (102k pdf)

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This excerpt is provided courtesy of Reed Elsevier

RCM LESSONS LEARNED - Chapter 9 from "RCM - Gateway to World Class Maintenance" by Anthony "Mac" Smith and Glenn R, Hinchliffe

It is very likely that most of the people involved in your company maintenance program, especially those charged with its improvement, have heard the term
“RCM.” However, the number of people who actually have some reasonable understanding of RCM is, in our experience, quite limited. Given that such an
uninformed state exists, it is extremely difficult to gain wide acceptance of an RCM program and the value that can be realized from it. The necessity for such
familiarization is important at both the management level and the system engineer and craft personnel level. Familiarization at the craft level is especially important,
a point that is not always fully recognized or appreciated.

Throughout this book, we have endeavored to demonstrate how RCM can and should be an integral part of any maintenance organization, especially those wishing to be known as World Class. More...

Click here to read RCM LESSONS LEARNED (234 k pdf)


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This full chapter is excerpted courtesy of Elsevier

Fundamental Requirements of Effective Preventive/Predictive Maintenance excerpted from Industrial Machinery Repair Best Maintenance Practices Pocket Guide by Ricky Smith and Keith Mobley

When most people think of preventive maintenance, they visualize scheduled, fixed interval maintenance that is done every day, every month, every quarter, every season, or at some other predetermined intervals. Timing may be based on days, or on intervals such as miles, gallons, activations, or hours of use. The use of performance intervals is itself a step toward basing
preventive tasks on actual need, instead of just on a generality.

The two main elements of fixed interval preventive maintenance are procedure and discipline. Procedure means that the correct tasks are done, the right lubricants applied, and consumables replaced at the best interval.

Discipline requires that all the tasks are planned and controlled so that everything is done when it should be done. Both these areas deserve attention. More...

Click here to read Fundamental Requirements of Effective Preventive/Predictive Maintenance 978k pdf)

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CMMS: A Timesaving Implementation Process
By Daryl Mather

A prevalent system in large corporations for quite some time, Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) is now penetrating moderate to small corporations on an international level. These corporations need an efficient method to implement this effective but complicated system. However, most of the texts currently available are written by theorists and involve complex approaches. In CMMS: A Timesaving Implementation Process, a practitioner-turned-consultant presents his field-proven, practical approach that can dramatically reduce the amount of time and cost needed to implement and maintain CMMS in any corporation. The book presents a comprehensive template process that can be used in order to implement and maintain CMMS in any business, industry, or facility, thus dramatically reducing the amount of time and the cost needed to implement the process.

More...Click here to read CMMS: A Timesaving Implementation Process (261k pdf)

The New Weibull Analysis Handbook
by Dr. Robert Abernathy

Weibull analysis is the world's most popular method of analyzing and predicting failures and malfunctions of all types. The method identifies the category of failure: infant mortality, random or wear out.  Weibull analysis provides the quantitative information needed for making RCM decisions which are often made from a qualitative approach.  Weibull failure predictions are accurate even with very small samples of data.   Weibull analysis calculates optimal parts replacement intervals for minimizing cost.  Weibull analysis is needed for making risk based inspection decisions to take action or defer action on potential failures.

More...Click here to read Chapter 1 (550k .pdf)

Making Common Sense Common Practice
by Ron Moore, P.E.

Making Common Sense Common Practice' takes a good, hard look at plant design, procurement, parts management, installation and maintenance, training and even offers a chapter on how to implement a computerized maintenance management system.  More...Click here to read Chapter 1 (189k .pdf)

published by:
3401 Louisiana 
Houston, TX 77002 USA
Physical Asset Management Handbook, 
John S. Mitchell

Physical Asset Management is a "better way" of managing corporate equipment assets. It blends the best processes, practice and technology to assure highest effectiveness in your specific business, operating, organizational and material conditions. More...Click here to read a full chapter excerpt (145k .pdf)

Click here to buy this book online
Precision Shaft Alignment Reference Guide
by Vibralign

This handy pocket-sized guide from Vibralign allows you to give each of your skilled tradesmen who perform alignment a ready reference they can carry with them to any job site. More...Click here to read Section 4:  Rim-Face Alignment Method (706k .pdf) 
Note: You may have to rotate the view on your Acrobat toolbar

Case Histories

Harmonics Generated from the Source
By Dranetz-BMI

The subject company manufactures meat products such as sausage, salami, and bologna. Most of their load consists of HVAC and refrigeration as they have about 6000 sq. ft. of cold room storage. They also have machinery such as grinders, slicers, and presses. The facility is served by a 120/240V through a utility-owned 500 kVA High-Leg Delta transformer that they share with another factory.  Interruptions occurred when a main 1200 amp circuit breaker was tripped frequently. 

More...Click here to read Harmonics Generated from the Source (144k pdf)

Thumping Sounds in the Closet
By Dranetz-BMI

Elevator control panels for the lower zone mid-rise elevators were on the nineteenth floor of a forty story office building in a large Midwestern city. It was fed with 480V transformer on the same floor, with the feeders to the controls rated at 800A.

Excessive noise and vibration of the feeder wires and conduit were noticed on a number of upper floors.

More...Click here to read Thumping Sounds in the Closet (282k pdf)

Vertical Condenser pump alignment case history by Ludeca

A 640HP vertical flange mounted Fairbanks-Morse condenser pump, consider critical equipment at a South Florida nuclear power plant, needed to be quickly aligned after a motor repair.

More...Click here to read a Vertical Condenser pump alignment case history (962k pdf)


Effective Maintenance Program Development/Optimization by Sammy Seifeddine, HSB Reliability Technologies

This paper describes a proven process for developing, optimizing, and managing effective maintenance programs for new and in-service assets based on risk and cost-benefit principles. The process calls for utilizing operational and maintenance experience as long as the experience is documented for the proper class of assets in the form of standard tasks. In absence of standard tasks, a more comprehensive analysis is performed using Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM2) or Failure Modes Effects Analysis (FMEA) to develop an optimum program. Asset performance data is used to continually adjust the maintenance program to meet user objectives. More...

Read the full story (572k pdf version)

Estimating Electric Motor Life Using Motor Circuit Analysis by Dr. Howard W. Penrose, Ph.D.
General Manager, ALL-TEST Pro

Electric motor life is a critical issue when discussing predictive maintenance and reliability programs. The primary question is: When will the motor fail? Unfortunately, this is not an easy question to answer, in particular as it relates to electric motor systems.

In this paper, we shall discuss the stages of a winding failure, causes and what effects the rate of failure in the winding. We shall then conclude with a discussion of the reliability of several winding faults over time and at what point action should be taken to correct or repair the fault. Based on application, electrical and physical environment, the materials presented will provide an average.

The motors covered by this paper will include low voltage (<600 Vac), standard, integral, three phase motors. This paper does not address similar higher voltage projects in progress. More...

Read the full story (146k pdf)

Using Reliability Engineering Methods as a Tool for Continuous
Process Improvement
by Bill Keeter, ARMS Reliability Engineers – USA, LLC

Presented at the 18th International Maintenance Conference

Whether we call the process TQM, TPM, Kaizen, or Six-Sigma the thing every business is striving for is continuous improvement in all
forms of work to give them a competitive advantage and increase
bottom line results. Often asset management improvements are seen as separate from overall process improvement issues. The fact that TQM and TPM have been seen as different initiatives is an example of that line of thinking. This paper will explore the direct link between improving asset management strategies and overall business process improvement. The paper will show the value of using Weibull Analysis, Reliability Block Diagrams, Root Cause Failure Analysis, and RCM techniques as process improvement tools.  More...

Read the full story (136k pdf version)

Creating the Environment for Root Cause Analysis (RCA) to Succeed: The Reliability Performance Process (TRPP)

TRPP© is a training model developed by Reliability Center, Inc.  It encompasses not only the elements about specific training objectives necessary to be successful, but it also outlines the specific requirements of the Executives/Management, the Champions and the Drivers who are accountable for creating the environment for RCA to be successful.

We will be outlining specific information from TRPP that is pertinent to creating the environment for RCA to succeed.

More...Read the full story here (30k pdf)


Infrared Contractor Promotes Spot Radiometer for P/PM Programs By Greg Stockton

Infrared Predictive Maintenance (IR/PM) activities, especially as they relate to predicting electrical/mechanical systems equipment failure, are increasing in popularity. This is in no small part due to the efforts of the IR industry to educate engineering and maintenance department managers as to the advantages of predicting, and subsequently preventing, problems from becoming system failures by using infrared thermographic equipment and/or contract services. However, many companies and plants have failed to achieve what they really need: An extensive and effective Infrared Predictive Maintenance Program. One "Hot Spot" survey per year does not make a successful infrared program.

More...Read the full story here (59k pdf)

How Norfolk Southern Railway Company Keeps Traction Motors at Peak Performance

Over the past year, Norfolk Southern Railway Company’s Mechanical Department in Altoona, PA, has changed
the way it looks at its 3-ton, 750 hp motors that keep its locomotives in motion.

With a fleet of more than 18,000 traction motors, keeping them all from failure is no easy job.

More...Read the full story here (14k pdf)

EAM Made Simple.  Well, Kind of Simple.
By Rob MacArthur

When asked to pen this piece on Enterprise Asset Management (EAM), I was struck with a radical idea. I would script the definitive and all encompassing manual for EAM. Not only that, but it would be written so that an 8 year-old could understand it. As it turns out not many people involved with EAM are of that age, so I figured I’d just keep it as simple as possible.

More...Click here to read EAM Made Simple (90k pdf)

Shaft Alignment Procedure by Damian Josefsberg, Acquip, Inc.

Shaft alignment should be an organized and simple process.  It is important to establish a set procedure to perform alignments.  This procedure should be followed for every alignment from beginning to end.  After you perform alignments over a period of time using the same procedure, you will find yourself spending less time per alignment and doing a much better job.

More...Click here to read Shaft Alignment Procedure (29k pdf)

Creating a Successful Corporate Maintenance Council by S. Bradley Peterson, Strategic Asset Management Inc.

Most large, multi-plant companies have launched corporate “Maintenance Councils” in the past decade.  While some have achieved a significant success, most are still floundering for direction and concrete results.

What are the differences that make some successful and some status quo?

More...Click here to read Creating a Successful Corporate Maintenance Council (127k pdf)

Getting The Most From Lube Oil Analysis by Michael P. Barrett, Insight Services

The goal of an effective oil analysis program is to increase the reliability and availability of your machinery, while minimizing maintenance costs associated with oil change outs, labor, repairs and downtime. Accomplishing your goal takes time, training and patience.

However, the results are dramatic and the documented savings in cost avoidance are significant! This paper presents basic oil analysis concepts for the novice looking to improve his/her understanding of the power of oil analysis.

More...Click here to read Getting The Most From Lube Oil Analysis (278k pdf)

Fundamentals of Shaft Alignment
by Damian Josefsberg, Acquip, Inc.

Performing correct shaft alignment saves time and money. Misalignment is the most common cause of machine vibration. Understanding and practicing the fundamentals of shaft alignment is the first step in reducing unnecessary vibration, reducing maintenance costs, and increasing machine uptime. Every alignment should be performed from start to finish using the same fundamental process. Once you employ this process into all shaft alignments the average time spent on an alignment will go down and the quality of the alignment will go up.

More...Click here to read Fundamentals of Shaft Alignment (35k pdf)

NOT the low hanging fruit of Infrared Thermography
by Gregory R. Stockton, Stockton Infrared Thermographic Services, Inc.

Over the past fifteen years, infrared thermography has gained acceptance as the way to check electrical circuitry for loose connections and other unsafe and wasteful conditions. This is a proven application and what the majority of infrared service providers do for a living. However, most of us know there are many uses for infrared thermography other than inspecting electrical switchgear. This paper discusses some of those applications as well as some new techniques for performing and promoting traditional infrared thermography.

More...Click here to read NOT the low hanging fruit of Infrared Thermography (805k pdf)

Integrating Ultrasound and Vibration Technologies: Together, Each Achieves More by Liane Harris, SDT North America and Ralph Copp, Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan

This paper is dedicated to exploring the possibilities for enhanced predictive maintenance through the integration of two important technologies; ultrasonic condition monitoring and vibration analysis. It recounts how one company’s approach to integrating multiple predictive technologies helped them establish a world class reliability department that is the envy of their peers.

More...Click here to read Integrating Ultrasound and Vibration Technologies (194k pdf)

Telling it like it is: Why Doesn’t Management Give You What You Need? by Carol Vesier, Ph. D. RonaMax, LLC

Everyone has limited resources, not enough time or money to do everything that you feel is necessary.  Your resources are limited because your company’s resources are limited.  The appalling reality is:

Your company has given you what it perceived your activities are worth.


  • Giving you more resources means giving someone (or some department) less. 

  • Businesses allocate resources based on perceived value.

More...click here to read Why Doesn’t Management Give You What You Need? (44k pdf)

Infrared Applications Everywhere! by Gregory R. Stockton,  Stockton Infrared

It is our industry's challenge to improve the methodology for gathering and disseminating infrared data efficiently and effectively and to explore and develop new markets by finding new uses for this technology. With modern infrared cameras, computers and analysis software, infrared thermographers today are rarely limited by the infrared equipment’s ability to measure temperatures and/or discern differences in temperature. Rather, they are limited by knowledge of what the object temperature or pattern signature should be, and/or how to create a condition that allows them to see what is happening with the object. This paper does NOT include a laundry list of applications. Any attempt to create a list would be limiting, and might imply that a finite number of applications are possible. 

More...Click here to read Infrared Applications Everywhere!  (143k pdf)

The Strategic Importance of Asset Management by Daryl Mather, Klaron

2003 has been a benchmark year in the discipline of Asset Management. This has been a result of a handful of events, the implications of which are reverberating around the world. All of these events were, in some manner, due to a failure of physical assets.

• The Colombia Space Shuttle Disaster
• The New York blackout, the London blackout and the blackout in Italy
• 6 people, responsible for the management and maintenance of the rail lines, charged with manslaughter regarding the Hatfield train disaster in the United Kingdom

More...Click here to read The Strategic Importance of Asset Management (367k pdf)

“Motor Testing” Which Road Will You Take? by Dave Humphrey, Allison Transmission

By using Motor Circuit Analysis (MCA) as one of the technologies (infrared, vibration, Ultrasonics, etc.) within the motor program, Allison can more accurately serve our customers’ needs and expectations. Motors can be tested in minutes, even with limited experience, prior to removing and sending them out to a supplier’s motor repair shop. Root cause analysis plays a large role in evaluating the motors with both internal MCA testing and the supplier’s involvement. Upon completion of the motor repair, the supplier supplies Allison with a Repair and a Reason for Repair Report. If the fault is due to contamination, a sample of the contamination found inside the stator windings is collected by the motor shop supplier and passed on to Allison’s technology department for lab analysis. All of this information assists the company in resolving the root cause of the motor problem and failures.

More...Click here to read “Motor Testing” Which Road Will You Take? (219k pdf)

Reliability and Accountability by Manou Hosseini http://www.globalmss.com 

The recent electricity outage in North America brought  “Reliability” issues to the surface, this time not only for engineers but also for politicians, as it was devastating for as many as 50 million people. President Bush, the most powerful man on earth, expressed his concern and emphasized that utility companies should be held “accountable” for the reliability of their committed power supply. The solution to the problem, according to North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) is reliability enforcement through legislation. According to NERC, “reliability rules must be made mandatory and enforceable” and “legislative action is needed to maintain Electric System Reliability”. This is not surprising, because unreliability is truly costly. The 29-hour blackout that hit New York City, according to city officials, cost its economy about $1.05 billion or $36 million per hour!

More...Click here to read Reliability and Accountability (55k pdf)

BOMs – A Maintenance & MRO Inventory Savings Model
THE MISSING TOOL for Maintenance & MRO INVENTORY CONTROL                    

MRG has performed hundreds of plant assessments in a wide range of industries, including Chemical Processing, Heavy Metals, Pharmaceuticals, Power Generation, food & beverage processing and a wide variety of Light Manufacturing.  During the course of these assessments, MRG came to the conclusion that a consistently missing maintenance best practice is the availability of accurate Bill of Materials for plant equipment.  Only a handful of plants visited by MRG have complete Bill of Materials available, which incorporated the majority of the spare parts in their MRO inventory. Not surprisingly, these plants are also considered pacesetters in their respective industries.

The focus of this report is on the differentiators that separate these few pacesetters from their competitors.  The following chart depicts the results possible when complete BOMs are in place.  The chart is based on real data from a Midwestern refinery that was undertaking many capital improvement projects during the eight-year time span requiring the addition of numerous spare parts to support new equipment.  The chart shows that in spite of a large increase in the accumulative value of new spare parts, the overall effect on the total inventory value was negligible.  While other practices such as regular evaluation of inventory levels using an EOQ and order point model and the daily practice of ABC cycle counting contributed to the control of the total inventory value, the primary reason for the results depicted in the chart were because of accurate and complete BOMs.  The spare parts for old equipment removed from service were easily and safely deleted from inventory because the plant use of every stocked spare part was known.

More...Click here to read BOMs – A Maintenance & MRO Inventory Savings Model (154k pdf)

Designing the Best Maintenance Organization
by S. Bradley Peterson, Strategic Asset Management Inc.

We find a lot of uncertainty about optimizing plant
organization among maintenance and plant leadership. This is manifest by frequent change in the organization
design, typically swinging from centralized maintenance
to decentralized maintenance, and back again.

The result of this frequent change is the uncertainty of
leadership, responsibility channels and direction (other
than the familiar and maligned reactive maintenance) of
the new organization’s accomplishments versus the
accomplishments of the former structure.

Improvement initiatives usually lose momentum as
people get acquainted with the change of relationship,
and look for new cues for how to act. If there has been
no communication plan executed as part of the change,
the craftsman has time to adjust to the new role, and
finds no reason to initiate anything new. Reactive
maintenance maintains its tenacious grip.

Is there an objective method we can use to design the
organization? What are the major factors that influence
the design? We present a model in this article that uses
organizational competencies and improvement strategy
as the driving considerations behind organization

More...Click here to read Designing the Best Maintenance Organization (33k pdf)

The Central Issue: How to Make Distributed Maintenance Work by S. Bradley Peterson President of Strategic Asset Management

During the 90’s, many plants have decentralized maintenance to a greater or lesser extent. While these plants have seen many gains from being closer to the consumer of their maintenance services, they also see issues emerging. What are the criteria to choose central vs. decentralized maintenance? Which functions and activities are candidates? Finally, what does this consultant recommend?

More...Click here to read The Central Issue: How to Make Distributed Maintenance Work (24k pdf)

Root Cause Analysis for Infrared Thermographers
Robert J. Latino, Reliability Center, Inc.

The use of Infrared Thermography puts us all in the position of being “failure analysts”. Our roles sometimes require us to not only to identify thermal anomalies, but also to investigate where the anomaly originates. We will explore how a Root Cause Analysis (RCA) method called PROACT® can help thermographers provide a competitive edge by providing their clients with a Root Cause Analysis in addition to the Infrared Study.

More...Click here to read Root Cause Analysis for Infrared Thermographers (92k pdf)

Understanding and Implementing Maintenance Excellence
By Kenneth D. Peoples, Reliability Engineering / Predictive Technologies Manager
The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company

Posted by permission from the Lubrication & Fluid Power Expo 2003 Proceedings

Modern industry is at a crossroads in today’s world. Management is driven to reduce costs and provide higher productivity. Yet, management in many cases does not have the correct information required to make long-term cost effective decisions with regards to the maintenance of the facilities, buildings, infrastructure, utilities, and assets that make parts that make up the final product. This paper will focus around large industry, which uses high technology machine tools. The principals discussed here however will apply to any business of any size.

More...Click here to read Understanding and Implementing Maintenance Excellence (243k pdf)

Fault Zone Analysis “STATOR”
by: Phil Coley, PdMA

The Stator Fault Zone is often considered one of the most controversial fault zones due to the significant challenge in early fault detection and the prevention of motor failure surrounding the stator windings. This challenge is further intensified in higher voltage machines, where the fault to failure time frame becomes much shorter. The Stator Fault Zone is identified as the health and quality of the insulation between the turns and phases of the individual turns and coils inside the motor.

More...Click here for Fault Zone Analysis “STATOR” (62k pdf)

Control of  Rotors Condition in AC Motors by Victor Duarte NTM - Engenharia e Tecnologia em Manutenção, Lda.

The control of the rotor condition of induction AC motors by Predictive Maintenance Systems is based on measurement and analysis of vibrations. A real case of damage diagnosis in the rotor of a 200 kW motor.

The knowledge in due time of the actual working condition of the equipment in an installation is, undoubtedly, an advantage for making decisions on the maintenance actions to be implemented. The case presented ahead was detected and diagnosed during the first routine inspection carried out to a group of machines using a Predictive Maintenance System. The inspection carried out permitted, not only the detection of the fault, but also to diagnose and characterize its impact. This enabled the maintenance department to plan an efficient intervention.

More...Click here to read Control of  Rotors Condition in AC Motors (92k pdf)

Q&A About InterActive Vibration Training

Vibration analysis in general and vibration training in particular have always had a reputation of being dry and boring. Many training companies offer the "lecture-style" classes where the instructor stands up and talks for 2 or 3 or even 4 days, some offer a few hands-on exercises to break up the monotony but basically that is it - an instructor talks and the students listen. Many students struggle to learn in this style format and thereby remain stuck at the level where they really are not sure of themselves. About 7 years ago, a company named Vibe-Assist developed a training class that is significantly different than that.

More...Click here to read a Q&A About InterActive Vibration Training (28k pdf)

Asset Health Care Series
Dave Army of Strategic Asset Management Inc.

A compilation of 12 articles written by Dave Army outlining the components of Stage 1 of the SAMI Asset Healthcare triangle.

• Part 1 Identification of Work
• Part 2 Work Prioritization
• Part 3 Long Range Scheduling
• Part 4 Look Ahead Scheduling
• Part 5 Materials Management
• Part 6 Preventive Maintenance
• Part 7 Planners
• Part 8 The Work Plan
• Part 9 Work Execution
• Part 10 Work Closure
• Part 11 CMMS
• Part 12 Metrics

More...Click here to read the Asset Health Care Series (189k pdf)

RCA versus FMEA
By Robert Latino, Reliability Center

In today’s confusion corner, we will explore the terms of Root Cause Analysis (RCA) and Failure Modes & Effects Analysis (FMEA).  While two different analytical techniques, they are often confused as being competing techniques when they are not.

More...Click here to read RCA versus FMEA (88k pdf)

Think like a number cruncher!
Stan Jackson, Managing Director, SPM Condition Monitoring Solutions

You may know exactly the good engineering reasons why your company should be investing in condition monitoring equipment, but to make your case, you must learn to think in financial terms.

Click here to read Think like a number cruncher! (280k pdf)

Effective Vibration Training at Armstrong World Industries
By: Rick Clausen, Armstrong World Industries

Here at AWI, we recognize that a critical part of achieving a reliable program is adequate training. Our entire group of four here in the Power House went through the same vibration training. We had been working with Vibe-Assist, one of our training providers, for 3 or 4 months using their experience to support the design and implementation of our initial program. They offered a training class that we felt had some real advantages over traditional lecture-style training classes. This class – InterActive Training – consists of one day of basic vibration analysis in a traditional lecture format. The subjects were what they called “core” subjects – very important to understand – and included things like spectrum resolution, phase and bearing analysis. The next 3 days, however, are a series of interactive case histories based on real-life experiences.

More...Click here to read Effective Vibration Training (77k pdf)

Just in Time Maintenance - Culture Lessons from the past

By Peter Dijstelbloem

The implementation of Just-in-Time (JIT) concepts helped save the western manufacturing industry in the eighties from being overrun by their Japanese competitors. Even though the threat is less apparent, the situation in many plant maintenance organizations today is very similar to the situation in the manufacturing industry prior to the introduction of JIT concepts. Accordingly, the same concepts that helped the manufacturing industry can provide valuable lessons to deal with the challenges that many maintenance organizations are facing today.

This article provides a brief description of how JIT concepts changed manufacturing processes and provides insight on how to apply four key JIT concepts in processing maintenance work.

More...Click here to read Just in Time Maintenance (168k pdf)

Changing Your Organization for the Better Part 3: The Goal Achievement Model by Stephen J. Thomas

In Part 1 we discussed the concept of organizational change, the three linked elements necessary for success and details about dissatisfaction.  In Part 2 we addressed ourselves to organizational vision.  Part 3 addressed the third element – next steps.  The process of identifying and accomplishing the next steps uses the Goal Achievement Model. 

The Goal Achievement Model is a method to take the vision (a rather abstract concept) and convert it into goals, initiatives, and activities that people can do.  Further, by developing it, the organization can establish a clear line between what people in the organization are actually doing and the vision that they are striving to accomplish.

More...Click here to read The Goal Achievement Model (56k pdf)

Changing Your Organization for the Better Part 2: The Vision of the Future or How Do We Know Where We Are Going So We Will Know When We Have Arrived
by Stephen J. Thomas

In Part 1, we discussed the concept of organizational change, and introduced the eight key elements of the change equation.  The overriding component however is the concept of vision.  It is fine to have a general level of dissatisfaction with the current or “as-is” state, but it is not enough.  You need a vision of what the new or “to-be” state will look like so that the organization will know what they are trying to achieve and what it will look like when they do.

More...Click here to read The Vision of the Future (120k pdf)

Failure Codes
by Bryan D Weir,
Perspective CMMS

What is a failure code?
Quite simply, it is a code that illustrates why an asset failed or the reason that the asset failed. Codes can be a number which is cross referenced to a list of actual code descriptions or more conveniently a series of alphanumeric characters that are a logical abbreviation of their descriptions. However, with modern database technology and available disk space, the full descriptions are increasingly being used instead of alphanumeric codes.

More...Click here to read Failure Codes (67k pdf)

Spotlight on Roofs
by Ron Lucier
ITC Regional Thermography Course Manager

Yes, sports fans. It is time for the Boston Red Sox to begin another season which, as in the past 87 years will lead us to cry “maybe next year?” in October. Coinciding with our annual disappointment is the start of the roof inspection season in the Northern climates. As I have been getting many calls about this topic I feel that it is necessary to address journalism’s 5 W’s and H regarding infrared roof inspections

More...Click here to read Spotlight on Roofs (150k pdf)

Ricky Smith
, Life Cycle Engineering 

At what level are the best Maintenance Organizations performing and how do they compare to the average maintenance operation . . . or to the worst? How well would your company score? Life Cycle Engineering, Inc. (LCE) has performed more than 170 assessments of maintenance organization effectiveness across a broad spectrum of plant and facility types. The assessments evaluate 21 essential elements, which are the building blocks of the “Maintenance Arch” in Figure 2, by objective scoring of more than 650 individual characteristics and factors, or data points.


Benchmarking the Maintenance Process: LCE benchmarking data, summarized in the table on the next page, is compiled from maintenance assessments performed for more than 170 maintenance organizations at a broad variety of industrial facilities, process plants and manufacturers in North America. The top row lists the lowest scores in our database for each of the 21 elements we evaluate during our maintenance assessments (refer to the Maintenance Arch). The second row lists the average scores and the bottom row lists the highest scores we have recorded. Of special note in the benchmarking data shown is that most elements assessed are interdependent with other elements and thus influence their effectiveness. Also available is a chart illustrating the correlation between the total composite score from the assessment and maintenance cost figures (labor and material).

More...Click here to read Benchmarking the Maintenance Process (114k pdf)

Changing Your Organization for the Better Part 1: The Elements of the Change Process
by Stephen J. Thomas

The business landscape is littered with companies that failed to recognize that change was needed or if they recognized it they failed to act.  The common denominator for all of these firms is that they are out of business, going out of business or at the minimum not performing at the level that those in the organization would like to see.  But there is hope.

More...Click here to read The Elements of the Change Process (40k pdf)

Maximizing Your Prism4 CMMS Data Assets  
by Eric Layland, ITTIA

Condition monitoring systems are evolving at an astounding rate. There are more capabilities, features; bells and whistles packaged into ever more expensive application suites. Many of these products are fantastic examples of software engineering and it shows by the hours required of specialist(s) to install and configure such solutions. No doubt about it, they can be nice once they work. But what about systems in place that are performing as needed but could use an extra boost?  Do they need to be scraped for the latest and greatest CMMS-MRP-ERP-XYZ solution? What they could really use is a dose of proven technology that won’t break the budget and offers greater returns for an existing system.

More...Click here to read Maximizing Your Prism4 CMMS Data Assets  (109k pdf)

Measuring Overall Craft Effectiveness (OCE)
by Ralph W. “Pete” Peters, The Maintenance Excellence Institute

What is Overall Craft Effectiveness or OCE? It is very much like the concept behind the OEE Factor for the calculation of Overall Equipment Effectiveness. But OCE applies specifically to the productivity of craft labor resources.

The future will see third party maintenance continue to replace in-house maintenance operations that have priced themselves out of the marketplace due to low craft labor productivity, poor service and technical skills, lack of internal leadership and of course declining physical asset reliability.

More...Click here to read Measuring Overall Craft Effectiveness (OCE) (545k pdf)

The Bionic Tradesman
by Allan Rienstra of SDT North America

Imagine for a moment that your hearing is better than anyone else's. Suppose you could hear air leaks from a fifty-foot distance before they became large enough to be heard by others and their damage escalates. Could costly downtime be averted if you could hear bearings, deep inside a machine, in the infancy of their failure rather than waiting for the outward signs of deterioration and destruction? Your extrasensory abilities also allow you to remember how those bearings sounded each and every time you have heard them and in your mind you can visualize, chart and compare all the subtle differences throughout the bearings life. You can hear valves leak internally and grease and oil as it finds its way into a bearing's rollers and races. As you approach a closed electrical panel you are aware a component inside is arcing. You can point out potential wind and water leaks in a passenger compartment without water or even driving the vehicle. You have become the Bionic Tradesman!

More...Click here to read The Bionic Tradesman (304k pdf)

.NET and the Future of Enterprise Asset Care
by Chandra Patel, Champs Software Inc.

As enterprises begin to embrace the Internet architecture and deploy their mission critical applications with new technologies, the Internet is fast becoming the preferred platform for delivering solutions for complex business processes. The obvious benefit of Internet applications is the familiarity with the user interface, resulting in ease of use and rapid training. For the enterprises, the elimination of many deployment issues and making the solutions available to employees, partners and suppliers result in improved productivity and profits.

The leading technology companies, IBM, Microsoft, Sun and several others, have announced Internet initiatives and products for development, deployment and support of enterprise solutions. Microsoft has named its Internet initiative .NET.  We believe .NET will have a greater appeal for the larger IT organizations as most of their customers will be already familiar with Microsoft products because of what they have on their desktops. The cost of the technology and the availability of trained personnel will also be important considerations in selection of the tools.  Here again, we feel Microsoft will have an edge over its competitors.  What is .NET?

More...Click here to read .NET and the Future of Enterprise Asset Care (218k pdf)

Let's Talk About Compressed Air Leakage
By Allan Rienstra

Did you know that leakage in compressed air distribution systems is common?  In fact, in most compressed air systems, losses due to leakage exceed 30%.  Very few users realize how costly this leakage can be.

More...Click here to read "Lets Talk About Compressed Air Leakage" (157k pdf)

Click here for compressed air flow/cost charts (207 k pdf)

ASPs for CMMS/EAM: The Right Choice
William Russell AssetPoint, an Integrys Company

Quantum Leap – ‘One Small Step for Man…’

The ASP industry has transformed typical 9-to-5 development-centric software companies into 24-by-7 service-centric businesses. ASPs are now positioned to profoundly advance – should I be so cliché to say revolutionize? – the ways companies reduce their technology investment yet still have access to best-of-breed software and IT best practices.

More...Click here to read ASPs for CMMS/EAM: The Right Choice (417k pdf)

Some of the documents are in a .pdf format and require Adobe Acrobat v 5.0 or later.  A free Adobe Acrobat Reader is available for download by clicking here.



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